Aviation Jet Fuel A–1:
Aviation Jet Fuel is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines. It is colourless to straw–coloured in appearance. The most commonly used fuels for commercial aviation are Jet A and Jet A–1, which are produced to a standardised international specification. The only other jet fuel commonly used in civilian turbine-engine powered aviation is Jet B, which is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance.
Jet fuel is a mixture of a variety of hydrocarbons. Because the exact composition of jet fuel varies widely based on petroleum source, it is impossible to define jet fuel as a ratio of specific hydrocarbons. Jet fuel is therefore defined as a performance specification rather than a chemical compound.
Aviation Jet Fuel is commonly referred to as JP54. However, this is the wrong terminology as there is no such grade of Jet Fuel. Jet A and Jet A–1 are what refineries offer. Aviation Jet fuel Gas is what powers turbine aircraft engines. Worldwide, Jet Fuel is the most used low Sulphur content Kerosene. For instance, Colonial JP54 is similar to Jet A except the energy is 18.4 mj/Kg compared to the 42.8 MJ/kg of Jet A. Most importantly there is also a slight difference in additives.
Aviation Jet Fuel B is used for its extremely cold weather performance. However, aviation Jet fuel B’s lighter composition makes it more dangerous to handle. For this reason, it is rarely used except in very cold climates. A blend of approximately 30% Kerosene and 70% Gasoline. Because of its very low freezing point (−60 °C (−76 °F), it is known as a wide–cut fuel and has a low flash point as well. Aviation Jet Fuel B is primarily used in some military aircraft. In Canada, it is also used because of its freezing point. Aviation Kerosene standards are published as GOST–10227-86. The standard consists of different properties. It separates paraffin and gasoline in the refinery.
Military organisations around the world use a different classification system of JP (for “Jet Propellant”) numbers. Some are almost identical to their civilian counterparts and differ only by the amounts of a few additives. For instance, Jet A–1 is similar to JP–8, Jet B is similar to JP–4. Military fuels are highly specialised products and are developed for very specific applications. Jet fuels are sometimes classified as kerosene or naphtha–type. Kerosene–type fuels include Jet A, Jet A–1, JP–5 and JP–8. Naphthatype jet fuels, sometimes referred to as “wide–cut” Jet Fuel, including Jet B and JP–4.
Jet A specification fuel has been used in the United States since the 1950s. However, it is usually not available outside the United States and a few Canadian airports such as Toronto and Vancouver. Jet-A–1 is the standard specification fuel used by the rest of the world other than the former Soviet states where TS–1 is the most common standard. Both Jet A and Jet A–1 have a flashpoint higher than 38°C (100°F), with an auto ignition temperature of 210°C (410°F).