Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) is approximately a 35 kDa glycoprotein with three N-glycosylation sites and seven cysteine residues involved in three intramolecular disulfide bonds Cys38-104, Cys67-136, and Cys71-138. It belongs to the Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) superfamily. BMP-7 can form heterogeneous dimers with other BMPs, specifically, BMP2 and BMP-4, and heterodimers are more potent in BMP cell signaling. BMP-7 is expressed by several tissues, including, sensory organs (eye and skin), major end organs (heart, lung, liver, pancreas, kidney, and brain), lymphoid organs (bone marrow, thymus and lymph nodes), the reproductive system (testis, ovary, uterus and placenta), exocrine glands (prostate and mammary gland), and organ protectors (muscle and bone). It plays an important role in various biological processes, including embryogenesis, hematopoiesis, neurogenesis and skeletal morphogenesis. BMP-7 stimulates the target cells by binding to specific membrane-bound receptor BMPR2 and transduces signals through mothers against decapentaplegic (Smads) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. To date, rhBMP-7 has been used clinically to induce the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells bordering the bone fracture site into chondrocytes, osteoclasts, the formation of new bone via calcium deposition and stimulate the repair of bone fractures.